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 How To Write a Lab or Science Report

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تاريخ التسجيل : 22/05/2010
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مُساهمةموضوع: How To Write a Lab or Science Report   14/8/2010, 09:53


How To Write a Lab or Science Report

THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE is to help you learn to write student-level reports of ‎laboratory research, also known as scientific reports or lab reports. Although we will discuss ‎some differences between professional and student-level lab reports, our main focus is helping ‎you complete and understand those you will do at a high school level. However, even as a ‎student you might discover that one of your reports is worthy of publication in scientific ‎journals, if you follow good scientific method and the suggestions we provide in this guide. ‎After all, a number of successful scientists first published the results of their research when ‎they were in high school or even earlier (e.g., Louis Agassiz, the paleontologist, Jean Piaget, ‎the psychologist, and Terence Tao, the mathematician).‎
How lab reports differ from term papers
Lab reports differ in several ways from term papers (also sometimes called "research papers") ‎that you complete for other classes. ‎
Main goals: Communicate clearly and answer the key questions
At the student level, your main goal for a lab report should be to communicate clearly to your ‎instructor what you did and observed in your study (or experiment), as well as what the ‎results mean. (We will refer broadly to any form of data collection as a "study," encompassing ‎both direct forms of data collection such as experiments, as well as indirect observational or ‎‎"qualitative" studies often conducted in the social sciences.) Some of the key questions an ‎instructor might ask you in determining your level of understanding include: ‎
• Do you have a clearly stated objective or hypothesis?‎
• Do you present the data in a clear and concise fashion?‎
• Are you able to interpret the results of the study?‎
• Can you account for any discrepancies in your results?‎
• Do you present a thoughtful conclusion?‎
• Do you understand the overall relevance of the findings from the study?‎
Sections
The lab report answers such questions in a formal and structured way. You will usually follow ‎the following sequence in actually writing your lab report, but note that the abstract (if you ‎include it) will come first among these elements in the final report:‎
Introduction
Provides background information (e.g., previous studies) and includes the objectives and the ‎hypothesis.‎
Method
Specifies the details of your study, including information about any participants, materials, or ‎measurement devices used; procedures; and specialized statistical or related analytic tools. In ‎other words, how did you do it?‎
Results
Reports the data and analyses based on the data. States whether the results were consistent ‎with the hypotheses, usually without interpretation of any wider meaning or importance. ‎What did you find?‎
Discussion
Interprets the results of the experiment in terms of wider meaning and importance. What do ‎the results mean? ‎
References
List of works used to write the lab report.‎
Appendix (or Appendices)
Addendum of raw data, charts, graphs, or any information that was not easily included in the ‎body of the lab report.‎
Abstract
‎(Optional; as your instructor requests) Provides a summary of the lab report and is placed at ‎the report's beginning.‎
Your instructor may require variations of this framework or use different terminology. For ‎example, the Method section might also be called "Materials and Methods," "Methodology," or ‎‎"Experimental." The framework we present here has evolved over the past few hundred years ‎in the history of science, and even today is neither universal nor the only "correct" way to ‎structure a lab report, but is certainly more commonly used.‎
Tips to get you started
Websites of Interest
We have identified a number of Web sites offering information about writing lab reports.‎
References



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