منتـــــدى بــحــوث و تـــقـــــارير و كــــــــتب لجميع المراحل
عزيزي الزائر يرجى التشرف بالدخول الى المنتدى ان لــــــــــم تــــــــــــكون عضو و تريــــــــــد انضـــــــمام الى اسرة الــمــــــــنتدى ...شكــــــــــرا ادارة المــــــــــنتديات وليـــــــــــد

منتـــــدى بــحــوث و تـــقـــــارير و كــــــــتب لجميع المراحل

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تاريخ التسجيل : 22/05/2010
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مُساهمةموضوع: Kurdish Literature   14/8/2010, 09:47


Gorani Literature
Some of the well-known Gorani language poets and writers are Parishan Dinawari (d. ca. 1395), Mustafa Besarani (1642-1701), Muhammad Kandulayi (late 17th century), Khana Qubadi (1700-1759), Shayda Awrami (1784-1852) and Mastoureh Ardalan) (1805-1848). Gorani which was the literary language of much of what today is known as Iraqi and Iranian Kurdistan, is classified in some sources as a branch of Kurdish [3] and [4] although this is disputed by others.[5].
Kurmanji Literature
A Yezidi religious work, the Meshefa Re?, is in a classic form of Kurmanji, and could well have been written sometime in the 13th century. It is held to have been written by Sheikh Hasan (born 1195 CE), a nephew of Sheikh Adi Ibn Musafir, the prophet of the Yezidis. Based on this date, Meshef can be considered as the oldest piece of prose in Kurmanji.
The Kurdish poet Muhammad Faqi Tayran (1590-1660) collected many folk stories in his book In the Words of the Black Horse. He also wrote a book of Sufi verse, The Story of Shaykh of San’ân. Faqi-Tayran also had versified correspondence with the poet Malaye Jaziri. Some of the well-known Kurmanji poets and writers are listed below.
Ali Hariri (1425 – 1495).
Mullah Ahmad (1417-1494) from Hakkari region, who wrote the author of Mawlud, a collection of verse and an anthology;
Salim Salman, author of Yûsif û Zuleyxa in 1586;
Malaye Jaziri (1570-1640) from Buhtan region, the famous sufi poet. His collection of poems contains more than 2,000 verses
Ahmad Khani (1651-1707), the author of Mam and Zin, a long poem of 2,650 distichs,is probably the best known and most popular of the classical Kurdish poets[7].
Ismail Bayazidi (1654-1710), author of a Kurmanji-Arabic-Persian dictionary for children, entitled Guljen.


The tragedy of Mam and Zin

The drama of Mem û Zîn(Mam and Zin) (Memî Alan û Zînî Buhtan), was written in 1694 by Ahmad Khani (1651-1707) from Hakkari, is a rich source of Kurdish culture, history and mythology. This work also emphasizes the national aspirations of the Kurdish people.
Mam of the Alan clan and Zin of Buhtan family are two lovers from Alan and Butan families, respectively. Their union is blocked by a person named Bakr of the Bakran clan. Mam eventually dies during a complicated conspiracy by Bakr. When Zin receives the news, she also dies while mourning the death of Mam on his grave. The immense grief leads to her death and she is buried next to Mam. The news of the death of Mam and Zin, spreads quickly among the people of Jazira Butan. Then Bakr's role in the tragedy is revealed, and he takes sanctuary between the two graves. He is eventually captured and slain by the people of Jazira. A thorn bush soon grows out of Bakr’s blood, sending its roots of malice deep into the earth between the lovers’ graves, separating the two even after their death.
Contemporary Kurmanji Literature

The first Kurmanji newspaper, titled Kurdistan, was published in Cairo in 1898. The Kurds in the Soviet Union, despite their small numbers, had the opportunity of elementary and university education in Kurdish and for many decades. This in turn lead to an appearance of several Kurdish writers and researchers among them. The literary works of Kurdoev and Shamilov are the well known examples of Kurdish prose in the 20th century. The first modern latin-based alphabet for Kurdish was created by Jaladat Ali Badirkhan, the poet and writer who fled Turkey in 1920s and spend the rest of his life in Syria.
Since 1970s, there has been a massive effort on the part of Kurds in Turkey to write and to create literary works in Kurdish. The amount of printed material during the last three decades has increased enormously. Many of these activities were centered in Europe particularly Sweden and Germany where many of the immigrant Kurds are living. There are a number of Kurdish publishers in Sweden, partly supported by the Swedish Government. More than two hundred Kurdish titles have appeared in the 1990s. Some of the well known contemporary Kurdish writers from Turkey are Firat Cewerî, Mehmed Uzun, Mehmed Emin Bozarslan, Mahmud Baksi, Hesenê Metê, Arjen Arî, Berken Bereh and Rojen Barnas. Besides these writers, there is a new generation that emerged in the middle of 90's and aftermath, writers, poets and translators such as Kawa Nemir, Rênas Jiyan, Lal Lale?, Îbrahîm Seydo Aydogan, Yaqob Tilermenî, Cîhan Roj, Mîran Janbar, ?ener Özmen, Yunus Ero?lu, Dilawer Zeraq, Sîdar Jîr, Omer Dilsoz, Hemîd Dilbahar, Ergin Öpengin, Gulîzer, Lorîn S. Dogan, Lokman Ayebe and Ehmed Ronîar.

The main academic center for Kurdish literature and language in Europe is the Kurdish Institute of Paris(Institut Kurde de Paris) founded in 1983. A large number of Kurdish intellectuals and writers from Europe, America and Australia are contributing to the efforts carried out by the Institute for reviving Kurdish language and literature.
Sorani Literature

Contrary to Kurmanji, literary works in Sorani appeared only in the late 18th century and early 19th century. Nali Was The First one who's wrote poem in this dialect. and Haji Qadir Koyi of Koy Sanjaq in central Kurdistan (1817-1897), and Sheikh Rezza Talabani (1835-1909) also wrote in Sorani Dialect after Nali. Closeness of the two dialects of Sorani and Kurmanji, is cited as one of the reasons for the late start in Sorani literature and the fact that during 15th to 19th century, there was a rich literary tradition in the Kurmanji dialect.
Despite its late start, Sorani literature progressed with a rapid pace, specially during the early 20th century and after recognition of Sorani as the main language of Kurds in Iraq. The language rights of Kurds were guaranteed by the British and school education in Kurdish started in earnest in the early 1920s. It is estimated that almost 80% of the existing Kurdish literature in the 20th century has been written in Sorani dialect.
Increased contact with the Arab world and subsequently western world led to a translation movement among Kurds in Iraqi Kurdistan in the early 20th century. Many classical literary works of Europe were translated into Sorani, including the works of Pushkin, Schiller, Byron and Lamartine.
Kurdish is one of the official languages of Iraq and the central government assistance has been instrumental in supporting publication of books and magazines in Kurdish. In 1970s, an oraganization called Korî Zaniyarî Kurd(The Scientific academy of Kurds) was established for academic studies in Kurdish language and literature. It was centered in Baghdad. Kurdish language departments were also opened in some Iraqi universities including Baghdad University, University of salahaddin and University of Sulaimani. The well known sorani poets include Abdulla Goran (founder of the free verse poetry in Kurdish), Sherko Bekas, Abdulla Pashew, Qanih. Many Kurdish writers have written novels, plays and literary analysis including Piramerd, Alaaddin Sajadi, Ibrahim Ahmad, Karim Hisami and Hejar.there are also some contemporary well-known novel and play writers such as Medhit Bexaw, Karim Sharaza, Abdul Khaliq Aladdin and Dr. Ezzadin Rasul
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